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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a key component of Cannabis sativa L and is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis that accounts for many of the plant’s natural health benefits. It is the second most prominent phytocannabinoid in the Cannabis sativa L. plant. CBD is a pleiotropic component meaning it produces many effects through multiple molecular pathways. CBD acts through various receptor-independent channels, and by binding with a number of non-cannabinoid receptors and ion channels, to exert its therapeutic effects.
Phytocannabinoids are plant derived compounds that are capable of either directly interacting with cannabinoid receptors, sharing chemical similarities with cannabinoids that allow them to interact with components of the endocannabinoid system, or both.
- CBD Is Not Psychoactive
- CBD Is Not Habit Forming or Addictive
- CBD Can Be Legally Purchased and Used throughout the United States
Studies of CBD suggest benefits such as:
- Help with relieving pain, stress, and anxiety
- Help with epileptic seizures, insomnia, psoriasis/eczema, PTSD, asthma, migraines, and nausea
- Suppressing muscle spasms, cancer cell, and bacteria growth
- Reduces inflammation, seizures and convulsions, nerve damage and sugar levels
Helps relieve allergy symptoms, autoimmune diseases, skin conditions and so much more!
The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a complex signaling network within the bodies of all mammals that utilizes different receptors, regulatory enzymes, and specialized components such as cannabinoids, to control, influence, and regulate various bodily processes. The body produces its own cannabinoids called endogenous cannabinoids or endocannabinoids. The first known endocannabinoid discovered is Anandamide, which is named after the Sanskrit word ananda meaning “bliss or supreme joy”. It was discovered after cloning an ECS receptor site, CB1, which by existing indicated that there was a substance within our bodies that attached to that receptor site. A few years later the cloning of another receptor site, CB2, led to the discovery of 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl-glycerol), another endocannabinoid. The cannabinoid receptor sites are located on the cell surfaces throughout the human body. CB1 receptors are concentrated in the central nervous system and the brain. CB2 receptors are concentrated in the peripheral organs and the immune system.
Unlike psychoactive THC, CBD has little binding affinity to either the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Instead, CBD indirectly stimulates endogenous cannabinoid signaling by suppressing the enzyme fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH)—the enzyme that breaks down anandamide, the first endocannabinoid discovered in the mammalian brain.
Whereas the cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis are considered “exogenous ligands” to the cannabinoid (CB) receptor family, anandamide is an “endogenous” cannabinoid ligand—meaning it binds to one or more cannabinoid receptors and is found naturally inside the mammalian brain and body. Anandamide favors the CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and central nervous system. Because FAAH is involved in the metabolic breakdown of anandamide, less FAAH means more anandamide remains present in the body for a longer duration. More anandamide means greater CB1 activation.
CBD enhances endocannabinoid tone by suppressing FAAH.
By inhibiting the enzyme that metabolizes and degrades anandamide, CBD enhances the body’s innate protective endocannabinoid response. At the same time, CBD opposes the action of THC at the CB1 receptor, thereby muting the psychoactive effects of THC.
CBD also stimulates the release of 2-AG, another endocannabinoid that activates both CB1 and CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors are predominant in the peripheral nervous system and the immune system.
Targeting FAAH activity typically results in analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant like effects.
Jose Alexandre Crippa and his colleagues at the University of San Paulo in Brazil and at the King’s College in London have conducted pioneering research into CBD and the neural correlates of anxiety.
At high concentrations, CBD directly activates the 5-HT1A (hydroxytryptamine) serotonin receptor, thereby conferring an antidepressant effect. This receptor is implicated in a range of biological and neurological processes, including (but not limited to) anxiety, addiction, appetite, sleep, pain perception, nausea and vomiting.
5-HT1A is a member of the family of 5-HT receptors, which are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. Found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, 5-HT receptors trigger various intracellular cascades of chemical messages to produce either an excitatory or inhibitory response, depending on the chemical context of the message.
CBD triggers an inhibitory response that slows down 5-HT1A signaling. In comparison, LSD, mescaline, magic mushrooms, and several other hallucinogenic drugs activate a different type of 5-HT receptor that produces an excitatory response.
CBD’s anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) properties may in part be attributable to its activation of the adenosine receptor. Adenosine receptors play significant roles in cardiovascular function, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow. The adenosine (A2A) receptor has broad anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body.
Adenosine receptors also play a significant role in the brain. They down-regulate the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate.
While CBD has little binding affinity for either of the two cannabinoid receptors, it has been shown to directly interact with other “G-protein-coupled” receptors and ion channels to confer a therapeutic effect. CBD, for example, binds to the TRPV-1 receptor, which is known to mediate pain perception, inflammation and body temperature.
TRPV is the technical abbreviation for “transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V.” There are several dozen TRP receptor variants or subfamilies that mediate the effects of a wide range of medicinal herbs.
Scientists also refer to TRPV-1 as the “vanilloid receptor,” named after the flavorful vanilla bean. Vanilla contains eugenol, an essential oil that has antiseptic and analgesic properties; it also helps to unclog blood vessels. Historically, the vanilla bean has been used as a folk cure for headaches.
CBD is a TRPV-1 “agonist” or stimulant. This is likely one of the reasons why CBD-rich cannabis is an effective treatment for neuropathic pain.
Capsaicin—the pungent compound in hot chili peppers—activates the TRVP-1 receptor. Anandamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, is also a TRPV-1 agonist.
Whereas cannabidiol activates the TRPV-1 vanilloid receptor, the A2A adenosine receptor, and the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, some studies indicate that CBD functions as an antagonist that blocks, or deactivates, another G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR55.
GPR55 has been dubbed an “orphan receptor” because scientists are still not sure if it belongs to a larger family of receptors.
GPR55 is widely expressed in the brain, especially in the cerebellum. It is involved in modulating blood pressure and bone density, among other physiological processes.
GPR55 promotes osteoclast cell function, which facilitates bone reabsorption. Overactive GPR55 receptor signaling is associated with osteoporosis.
GPR55, when activated, also promotes cancer cell proliferation, according to 2010 study by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai. This receptor is expressed in various types of cancer.
CBD is a GPR55 antagonist, as University of Aberdeen scientist Ruth Ross disclosed at the 2010 conference of the International Cannabinoid Research Society in Lund, Sweden.
By blocking GPR55 signaling, CBD may act to decrease both bone reabsorption and cancer cell proliferation.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic molecules that are present in Cannabis and a wide variety of plants. Terpenes account for aromas and flavors produced by the essential oils of many types of plants. Terpenes induce distinct effects on the human body that vary between different types. Along with providing their own independent benefits, terpenes work together with cannabinoids to produce an array of effects and therapeutic benefits known as the entourage effect.
The Entourage Effect is the synergetic effect that results when various natural components within a plant interact together within the human body to produce different, often stronger, effects than caused by any one of those components used alone. In the case of Cannabis these various components include terpenes and cannabinoids
*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.